Synthetic fibres are man-made fibres produced from chemical substances. it is interesting to know what constitutes these fibres. to understand the intricates structure of synthetics fibres, we need to know what they are made up of and how.what happens to loose beads when strung in a wire?
Individual beads join together to form a chain. similarly, synthetic fibre is a chain of small chemical units joined together. Each small unit is called a monomer and the large chain formed of many such monomers is called a polymer.
The process of combining small monomers to form a large polymer is called polymerisation. polythene is the polymer of ethylene, that is many molecules of ethylene polymerise to form polythene. The structure of a polymer is similar to the bead of the necklace.
The monomer can join either linearly or ina cross-linked to fashion, thereby, giving scope to the formation of many kinds of polymers.when monomers are linked linearly, it is linear polymerisation. when monomers are cross-linked it is cross-linked polymerisation.
synthetic fibres are made of polymers that do not occur naturally.they are produced entirely in a chemical plant or laboratory from the by-products of petroleum or natural gas.
Types of Synthetic Fibres
There are many artificially manufactured fibres. the main ones among them are rayon, nylon, polyester and acrylic.
Rayon is made in factories using the cellulose obtained from wood pulp.it was the first artificially made fibres.so, it is referred to as the laboratories the first gift to the loom. as the raw materials come from natural sources, rayon is said to semi-synthetic fibres. the use of natural raw material lends it some natural fibres, rayon is also called artificial silk because it is a close resemblance to silk. the main properties of rayon are discussed below
- it absorbs moisture and is comfortable to wear
- it can be easily dyed in vivid colours
rayon is used to make apparel such as jackets tracksuits and to make home furnishing material. it is also used to make tyre cords, carpets, and surgical dressing.
Nylon is a common synthetics fibres which are widely used all over the world.basic raw material for the productions of nylon are coal, petroleum, water, and air.
The Main Characteristics of Nylon Synthetic fibres are following
- its fibres, yarn and fabrics do not crease easily.
- it is strong and easy to dye.
- Nylon fibres don absorbs water easily.
- its is elastic in nature and hence, highly durable.
Usage of Nylon
- used to make toothbrush bristles, socks, carpets, stocking and sleeping bags.
- also, use to make ropes of mountain climbing and in parachutes, because of its high strength and good frictional resistance.
Polyester is a polymer of many ester units.terylene is a popular form of polyester, which can be drawn into very fine fibres.
The main characteristics of polyester Synthetics Fibres are Following
- its fibres are extremely strong, very durable, resistant o most chemical and do not get wrinkled easily.
- its fibres can be woven like any other yarn
- it does not absorb water, so it dries quickly.
- it is highly flammable, so care of should be taken while wearing it.
Usage Of Polyester
- was to make polyester clothes.
- due to high tensile strength polyester is also used to make ropes.
- its property of being durable finds application in making polyethylene terphathlen bottle.
Acrylic Synthetic Fibres
Acrylic is often used as a substitute for wool. it is manufactured as a filament, then cut into short staple length similar to wool hair and spun into yarn. fabric made from acrylic is warm to wear, retains its shape and durable.
Acrylic Fibres characteristics
- Acrylic fibres are strong and wrinkles resistant
- acrylic is easy to wash and dries quickly
- acrylics is resistant to moths, oils, chemicals, and deterioration on exposure to sunlight.